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ERIKSON’S THEORY OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT

ERIKSON’S THEORY OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT

ERIKSON’S  THEORY  OF  PERSONALITY  DEVELOPMENT :-

 

 

In this post I will be explaining the ERIKSON’S THEORY OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT.

Erik Erikson, a German psychoanalyst heavily influenced by Sigmund Freud, explored three aspects of identity: the ego identity (self), personal identity (the personal idiosyncrasies that distinguish a person from another, social/cultural identity (the collection of social roles a person might play).

According to Erikson, the ego develops as it successfully resolves crises that are distinctly social in nature. These involve establishing a sense of trust in others, developing a sense of identity in society, and helping the next generation prepare for the future.

 

Erikson’s theory of ego psychology holds certain tenets that differentiate his theory from Freud’s. Some of these include:
• The ego is of utmost importance.
• Part of the ego is able to operate independently of the id and the superego.
• The ego is a powerful agent that can adapt to situations, thereby promoting
• mental health.
• Social and sexual factors both play a role in personality development.
Erikson’s theory was more comprehensive than Freud’s, and included information about “normal” personality as well as neurotics. He also broadened the scope of personality to incorporate society and culture, not just sexuality.

 

Erikson describes eight developmental stages as we grow from childhood to adulthood and the trauma of resolving certain critical conflicts we face at each of these stages. Till we resolve the particular conflicts of a particular stage, we cannot move to the next stage.

 

Erikson’s psychosocial theory of development considers the impact of external factors, parents and society on personality development from childhood to adulthood. According to Erikson’s theory, every person must pass through a series of eight interrelated stages over the entire life cycle.

1. Infant (Hope) – Basic Trust vs. Mistrust
2. Toddler (Will) – Autonomy vs. Shame
3. Preschooler (Purpose) – Initiative vs. Guilt
4. School-Age Child (Competence) – Industry vs. Inferiority
5. Adolescent (Fidelity) – Identity vs. Identity Diffusion
6. Young Adult (Love) – Intimacy vs. Isolation
7. Middle-aged Adult (Care) – Generativity vs. Self-absorption
8. Older Adult (Wisdom) – Integrity vs. Despair
These eight stages, spanning from birth to death, are split in general age ranges.

 

ERIKSON'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT

 

 

Stage 1: INFANCY: BIRTH-18 MONTHS OLD

Trust Vs. Mistrust:

During the first year of life, a child has a great need for dependency. Feeling of Trust vs. Mistrust are developed in this state and these feelings depend upon the behaviour of the parents. If the parents care for the infant in a very affectionate way, the child learns to trust other people. Lack of love and affection on the part of the parents results in mistrust. This stage makes a serious impact on a child that influences his behaviour throughout his life.

ERIKSON'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT

 

In the early stages of organisational life when a person knows very little about the job and is dependent on others for guidance, he develops the feelings of trust or mistrust towards others in the organisation depending upon how the other people respond to his needs and help him to find his place in the system.

 

The major emphasis is on the mother and father’s nurturing ability and care for a child, especially in terms of visual contact and touch. The child will develop optimism, trust, confidence, and security if properly cared for and handled. If a child does not experience trust, he or she may develop insecurity, worthlessness, and general mistrust to the world.

 

 

Stage 2: TODDLER / EARLY CHILDHOOD YEARS: 18 MONTHS TO 3 YEARS
      Autonomy Vs. Shame and Doubt:

 

The second stage occurs between 18 months and 3 years. At this point, the child has an opportunity to build self-esteem and autonomy as he or she learns new skills and right from wrong. The well-cared for child is sure of himself, carrying himself or herself with pride rather than shame. During this time of the “terrible twos”, defiance, temper tantrums, and stubbornness can also appear. Children tend to be vulnerable during this stage, sometimes feeling shame and and low self-esteem during an inability to learn certain skills.

ERIKSON'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT

 

In this stage of life a child begins to assert independence and experiences a great need to operate on his own. If the child is allowed to control those aspects of life that the child is capable of controlling, a sense of autonomy will develop. If he encounters constant disapproval by parents or elders a sense of self doubt and shame is likely to develop.

 

Likewise, in the organisation life, a person wants to operate independently after the initial training. If he is allowed to do so, a sense of autonomy will develop. But if he is criticized and disapproved by the others for making mistakes, he will tend to have self doubts about his competency and experience a sense of shame for not doing the things right.

 

Stage 3: PRESCHOOLER: 3 TO 5 YEAR

Initiative Vs. Guilt:

 

When a child is four and five years old they try to discover how much they can do. If the parents and other members of the family encourage the child to experiment and to achieve reasonable goals, they will develop a sense of initiative. But if on the other hand, they are blocked at every stage and made to feel incapable, they will develop a sense of guilt and lack of self confidence.

In the same way organisational members try to use their creative and acquired talents as they settle down in their jobs. But if things go wrong, other people make them feel guilty that they have wasted the resources of the organisation. But if the things go according to his planning, they will develop a sense of initiative. During this period we experience a desire to copy the adults around us and take initiative in creating play situations. We make up stories with Barbie’s and Ken’s, toy phones and miniature cars, playing out roles in a trial universe, experimenting with the blueprint for what we believe it means to be an adult. We also begin to use that wonderful word for exploring the world—”WHY?”

 

While Erikson was influenced by Freud, he downplays biological sexuality in favor of the psychosocial features of conflict between child and parents. Nevertheless, he said that at this stage we usually become involved in the classic “Oedipal struggle” and resolve this struggle through “social role identification.” If we’re frustrated over natural desires and goals, we may easily experience guilt.
The most significant relationship is with the basic family.

 

Stage 4: SCHOOL AGE CHILD: 6 TO 12 YEARS

Industry vs. Inferiority

From ages 6 to 12, as a child grows up but before reaching the stage of puberty, he learns many new skills and develops social abilities. If the child experiences real progress at a rate compatible with his abilities he or she will develop a sense of industry. If the situation is the reverse of it, he will develop a sense of inferiority. Likewise, in our organisational life, we try to work hard to make a position for ourselves. If we are not successful in our efforts, we will develop a sense of inferiority and low esteem otherwise we will develop a sense of industry.

 

During this stage, often called the Latency, we are capable of learning, creating and accomplishing numerous new skills and knowledge, thus developing a sense of industry. This is also a very social stage of development and if we experience unresolved feelings of inadequacy and inferiority among our peers, we can have serious problems in terms of competence and self-esteem.

 

As the world expands a bit, our most significant relationship is with the school and neighborhood. Parents are no longer the complete authorities they once were, although they are still important.

 

Stage 5: ADOLESCENT: 12 TO 18 YEARS
Identity Vs Role Confusion :

 

As a child reaches puberty and almost to the end of his adolescence (teenage years) he experiences conflict due to the socially imposed requirements that he should become an independent and effective adult. In this period he has to gain a sense of identity rather than to become confused about who he is. The autonomy, initiative and enterprise developed in the earlier stages are very important in helping the teenager to successfully resolve this crisis and prepare for adulthood. My website will help you in it

 

ERIKSON'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT STAGE 5

In the organisational setup also every employee has to make contributions to the institution and establish himself as a high performing member. If he does it, he is identified in the eyes of the management but if fails to establish himself he becomes just another employee in the eyes of the management whose identity is diffused.
Up until this fifth stage, development depends on what is done to a person.

At this point, development now depends primarily upon what a person does. An adolescent must struggle to discover and find his or her own identity, while negotiating and struggling with social interactions and “fitting in”, and developing a sense of morality and right from wrong.

 

Some attempt to delay entrance to adulthood and withdraw from responsibilities (moratorium). Those unsuccessful with this stage tend to experience role confusion and upheaval. Adolescents begin to develop a strong affiliation and devotion to ideals, causes, and friends.

 

 

Stage 6: YOUNG ADULT: 18 TO 3
Intimacy vs. Isolation

 

During young adulthood or the adults during the twenties, need is felt to develop intimate relations with others. The sense of identity developed during the teenage years allows the young adult to begin developing deep and lasting relationships.

ERIKSON'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT

 

However, if he feels it awkward to develop such relationships, he will feel isolated. In the organisational life also, people may desire to develop close contracts with others who are significant and important in the system. Those who can do it, have a sense of intimacy. For those others who find it difficult to do it, experience a sense of isolation in the system.

 

ERIKSON'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT STAGE6

 

At the young adult stage, people tend to seek companionship and love. Some also begin to “settle down” and start families, although seems to have been pushed back farther in recent years.

Young adults seek deep intimacy and satisfying relationships, but if unsuccessful, isolation may occur. Significant relationships at this stage are with marital partners and friends.

 

Stage 7: MIDDLE-AGED ADULT: 35 TO 55 OR 65

Adulthood/Generatively Vs. Stagnation:

 

This is the stage of middle adulthood. If a person becomes absorbed in his own career advancement and maintenance and he does not care for the development and growth of his children, which is a socially imposed demand on him, he will have a feeling of stagnation or self absorption in his life. On the other hand, a person who sees the world as bigger than himself and fulfills his social obligations will be generative and have a feeling of generatively.

ERIKSON'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT

Likewise in the organisation, as a person reaches his mid career, there is an expectation and need to mentor others in the system and help them to develop and grow in the organisation. If a person does not do this effectively, he senses a feeling of stagnation in the system.

Career and work are the most important things at this stage, along with family. Middle adulthood is also the time when people can take on greater responsibilities and control.

For this stage, working to establish stability and Erikson’s idea of generativity – attempting to produce something that makes a difference to society. Inactivity and meaninglessness are common fears during this stage.
Major life shifts can occur during this stage. For example, children leave the household, careers can change, and so on. Some may struggle with finding purpose. Significant relationships are those within the family, workplace, local church and other communities.

 

STAGE 8: LATE ADULT: 55 OR 65 TO DEATH
Integrity Vs Despair:

 

In this stage, a person is developed as a highly mature person. He has gained a sense of wisdom and perspective that can really guide the younger generations. This stage lasts from middle adulthood to death. In this stage conflict is experienced by individuals as their social and biological roles get diminished due to the ageing process and they experience a sense of uselessness.

 

If they resolve the issue, they can experiencehappiness by looking at their consolidated lifelong achievement. If they fail to do so, they will have a sense of despair.
Erikson believed that much of life is preparing for the middle adulthood stage and the last stage involves much reflection. As older adults, some can look back with a feeling of integrity — that is, contentment and fulfillment, having led a meaningful life and valuable contribution to society. Others may have a sense of despair during this stage, reflecting upon their experiences and failures. They may fear death as they struggle to find a purpose to their lives, wondering “What was the point of life? Was it worth it?”

 

I hope this post will help you to understand more about topic Personality Development.Plz post your comments about this post.Thanku so much .

How to boost Confidence

How to boost Confidence

WAYS  TO  BOOST  CONFIDENCE :-

Building Confidence Confidence is not something that can be learned like a set of rules; confidence is a state of mind. Positive thinking practice, knowledge and talking to other people are all useful ways to improve or boost your confidence levels.
Confidence comes from feelings of well-being, acceptance of your body and mind and belief in your own ability, skills and experience.

Self-confidence is extremely important in almost every phase of our lives, yet so many people struggle to find it.

Confident people inspire confidence in others: their audience, their bosses, their customers, and their friends. And gaining the confidence of others is one of the key ways in which a self-confident person finds success.
Low-confidence can be a result of many factors including: fear of the unknown, criticism, being unhappy with personal appearance, feeling unprepared, poor time-management, lack of knowledge and previous failures.

You can have anything you want if you are willing to give up the belief that you can’t have it.” Dr. Robert Anthony

Confidence is not a static measure, our confidence to perform roles and tasks can increase and decrease. Below are some ways which can help you in boosting your confidence:-

1. Stay away from negativity and bring on the positivity-

This is the time to really evaluate your inner circle, including friends and family. This is a tough one, but it’s time to seriously consider getting away from those who put you down and shred your confidence.Be positive, even if you’re not feeling it quite yet. Put some positive enthusiasm into your interactions with others.

Stop focusing on the problems in your life and instead begin to focus on solutions and making positive changes.There are many ways a person can change negative thoughts and self-criticism to more realistic and positive thoughts. Focusing on all of them at once may be overwhelming, but focusing on a few at a time and reminding yourself of these positive approaches regularly can change your self-esteem.

Read the positive thought strategies below and choose several that would help you most. Write them down and remind yourself to pause and change your way of thinking each time you are being critical of yourself. As you become more comfortable with each new way of thinking (for example, learning not to apologize or accept blame for other’s anger) try adding a new positive thought strategy to your list. Below are some thoughts:-

  • Accept flaws and being human.
  • Accept imperfections.
  • Don’t bully yourself.
  • Replace criticism with encouragement.
  • Don’t feel guilty about things beyond your control.
  • Don’t feel responsible for everything.
  • Treat yourself kindly.
  • Give yourself a break.
  • Choose the brighter side of things.
  • Forgive and forget.
  • Focus on what you CAN do, not what you can’t.

2. Perfect Body language-

 

Understanding and managing body language boosts your confidence. By managing your body language and sending appropriate signals in specific situations, you receive positive feedback and feel assured you aren’t sabotaging your own success or the perceptions of others.

More importantly, when you practice powerful, positive body language, you’re sending messages to your brain to reinforce positive, confident feelings. Confident body language actually makes you feel more confident.

Here are 9 powerful body language tips to instantly boost your confidence:

  • Practice smiling.
  • Pay attention to posture.
  • Use power poses.
  • Have a strong handshake.
  • Dress for confidence.
  • Stop fidgeting.
  • Practice appropriate eye contac. 

This is where posture, smiling, eye contact, and speech slowly come into play. Just the simple act of pulling your shoulders back gives others the impression that you are a confident person. Smiling will not only make you feel better, but will make others feel more comfortable around you. Imagine a person with good posture and a smile and you’ll be envisioning someone who is self-confident.

Look at the person you are speaking to, not at your shoes–keeping eye contact shows confidence. Last, speak slowly. Research has proved that those who take the time to speak slowly and clearly feel more self-confidence and appear more self-confident to others. The added bonus is they will actually be able to understand what you are saying.

3. Realise that failure or being wrong will not kill you-

Don’t accept failure and get rid of the negative voices in your head. Never give up. Never accept failure. There is a solution to everything. Make this your new mantra. Succeeding through great adversity is a huge confidence booster.


Low self-confidence is often caused by the negative thoughts running through our minds on an endless track. If you are constantly bashing yourself and saying you’re not good enough, aren’t attractive enough, aren’t smart enough and on and on, you are creating a self-fulfilling prophecy. You are becoming what you are preaching inside your head, and that’s not good. The next time you hear that negativity in your head, switch it immediately to a positive affirmation and keep it up until it hits the caliber of a self-confidence boost.

Confidence comes not from always being right but from not fearing to be wrong.”
Peter T. Mcintyre

Again, you have to face your fear. Because it is only then that you discover the thing that billions of people throughout history have discovered before you. Failure won’t kill you. Nor will being wrong. The sky will not fall down. That’s just what people that haven’t faced their fear yet think.
The thing is to reframe failure from being something that makes your legs shake to something useful and important for the growth of your self confidence and your overall growth as a human being.

Here are four ways that failure can help you out:
 You learn.
 You gain experiences you could not get any other way.
Makes you stronger.
 Your chances of succeeding increases.

And remember, the world doesn’t revolve around you. You may like to think so. But it doesn’t. People really don’t care that much about what you do. They have their own life, problems and worries that the world revolves around them to focus on. They don’t think that much about you or are constantly monitoring what you do wrong or when you fail.

4. Preparation-  

If you are prepared, and have the knowledge to back it up, your self-confidence will soar.

One important key to success is self-confidence. An important key to self- confidence is preparation.”- Arthur Ashe

Preparing yourself and educating yourself can be a big help here. For example rehearsing and rewriting your speech over and over you can pretty much learn it by heart. By doing research you can find breathing techniques that can quickly make your calmer and present. Or simple visualisation techniques that make you feel more confident and positive as you step out on the stage.

To build yourself we need to build confidence
This is obviously more work than not doing anything about the speech at all before you start giving it. But it can make a huge difference in your confidence levels if you take the time to prepare yourself. And of course, the speech and the delivery of it will most likely be a lot better too.
So prepare and you will feel more comfortable and confident. Just don’t make the mistake of getting stuck in the preparation phase and using it as a way to avoid taking action and the possible pain that it may result in.

 

I hope this post could help you in achieving self-confidence. In today’s world to achieve anything in your life and to be successful we require confidence.

How to develop personality

How to develop personality

WAYS  TO  DEVELOP  PERSONALITY :-

 

What is a mental diet? When you feed your mind with positive affirmations, information, books, conversations, audio programs, and thoughts, you develop personality with positive attitude.You become more influential and persuasive. You enjoy greater confidence and self-esteem.

When you make a clear decision that you are going to take complete control over your mind, eliminate the negative emotions and thoughts that may have held you back in the past, and become a positive person, you can actually bring about your own personal transformation. Mental fitness is like physical fitness. You develop high levels of self-esteem and a positive attitude with training and practice. Here are the six keys to develop personality:-

  • Positive affirmation-

In simple words positive affirmation is Statements which offer something to be true or Speak to yourself positively.

This definition is still not clear so to elaborate, basically positive affirmations, what most people mean by them are positive phrases which you repeat to yourself which describe how you want to be.

I believe that fully 90% of your emotions are determined by the way you talk to yourself as you go throughout your day. The sad fact is that if you do not deliberately and consciously talk to yourself in a positive and constructive way, you will by default, think about things that will make you unhappy or cause you worry and anxiety. Your mind is like a garden. If you do not deliberately plant flowers and tend carefully, weeds will grow without any encouragement at all. So think positive and get positive.

  • Be confident-

Confidence is generally described as a the feeling or belief that one can have faith in or rely on someone or something. Confidence has a lot to do with self–esteem; therefore people with high self–esteem tend to be more confident. However, just because you’re not confident right now, doesn’t mean you can’t be more confident in the future.
Confidence helps to develop personality

Confidence is certainly the most important factor which adds to the personality of any individual. A person’s confidence might go down due to mistakes, failure, guilty or any other thing which is undesirable. Some people often develop inferiority complex due to their physical appearance, caste, financial status etc. Such people perceive confidence as their weakness, while the truth is that confidence is an individual’s biggest strength.

Your confidence reflects your character, attitude and passion. You should be confident about who you are and whatever you do. Being confident will help you to express yourself and stand amongst the crowd. It’s important to be confident to develop personality.

There are a number of things you can do to work on building your self– confidence. These include both practical tools you can use every day to work on your confidence, but also seeking help from others.

  • Improve your communication skills-

In simple words the term communication skills refer to the ability to convey or share ideas and feelings effectively.

Developing your communication skills can help all aspects of your life, from your professional life to social gatherings and everything in between. The ability to communicate information accurately, clearly and as intended, is a vital life skill and something that should not be overlooked. It’s never too late to work on your communication skills and by doing so you can also improve your quality of life.

Communication help to develop personality

The way you speak reflects who you are. Be polite and gentle with your words. Use decent and simple words while interacting with everyone. Always think before you speak. English being globally accepted is preferred everywhere. So work on your English proficiency by listening to English news, reading English newspapers and magazines. Always use simple words for general interactions. As effective communication helps to develop personality.

 

  • Dress up well-

Dressing sense means the general sense about how you should dress up for office, party or any other occasion. A person should therefore wear according to the situation. Good looks no doubt will add to your personality but what matters the most is how you are dressed up. Even a 5’4 guy with a dark complexion can have a good personality if he knows how to carry himself. Dressing sense thus plays a major role to develop personality and confidence.

 

It is rightly said that “a man is known by his dress and address”. An individual’s dressing sense speaks volumes of his character and personality.

Variance in dressing helps to develop personality

 

You really need to know what you are wearing. Do not wear something just because everyone else is wearing the same. Find out whether the dress would look good on you or not? One needs to be extremely careful of his/her body type, built, weight, complexion and even family background, nature of work, climate while selecting clothes.

Dress according to the occasion. One needs to look good for an impressive personality. Clothes reflect who you are, how you feel at the moment and sometimes even what you want to achieve in life?

  • Be optimistic- 

Optimistic in simple words mean hopeful and confident about the future.

Have a positive outlook towards everything. Nobody wants to be around a person who is negative and complaining all the time. Nobody wants to work or live with a pessimist. When you face a failure, let go of the assumption that you’re the unluckiest person alive. Use positive statements like “I can do it”, “I always have a choice” etc. Expect good things from the future. An optimistic person thinks the best possible thing will happen, and hopes for it even if it’s not likely.

Being optimistic helps an individual to be positive as well as it also helps in the personality development, Gives you a reason for living, Reduces the level of stress experience, Promotes self respect and integrity, Creates a positive attitude, Increases your level of motivation, Promotes positive relationships, Gives room for self expression, Increases your mental flexibility, Improves your social life. Being optimistic helps to develop personality.

  • Be a Good listener-

Good learning skills in an individual are highly desirable. You should always have the energ to learn new things. This reflects your enthusiasm. Don’t let yourself repeat the same mistakes. Learn from them.

 

Out of the four basic types of communications, reading, writing, speaking and listening, listening has its own value and importance. One can extract lots of benefits from the habit of good listening while paving the ways for his personal development. Good listening is a resourceful skill to expand the sources of information and knowledge that may be a good cause for you to gain wisdom.

Being a good listener helps to develop personalty

Good listening skills can help you become more experienced person than those who lack this habit. One of the greatest benefits you gain while being a good listener is that you can gain trust in the people around you. In fact, conversation involves speaker and listener and vice versa, rather, to a greater extent, if you would like to be a good listener, you would gain confidence and trust in others. Besides, a good listening habit is a good source of making a greater friend circle and being popular among them. Everyone makes mistakes, but learning from them is the best one can do. This characteristics will help you to be entitled as a person with a good personality.To develop personality you need to be a good listener.

Conclusion-

I hope you enjoyed this post on developing personality. Please leave a comment and share it with your friends!

Steps to develop personality

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